The Library of Congress
H.R. 5808 - To amend the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to establish a public health insurance option.
Introduced July 21, 2010 by Rep. Lynn C. Woolsey, with 128 cosponsors
SEC. 1325. PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE OPTION.
(a) (1) ESTABLISHMENT- For years beginning with 2014, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (in this subtitle referred to as the `Secretary') shall provide for the offering through Exchanges established under this title of a health benefits plan (in this Act referred to as the `public health insurance option') that ensures choice, competition, and stability of affordable, high-quality coverage throughout the United States in accordance with this section. In designing the option, the Secretary's primary responsibility is to create a low-cost plan without compromising quality or access to care.
Congressional Budget Office
July 22, 2010
Letter from Douglas W. Elmendorf, Director
To: Honorable Fortney Pete Stark, Chairman, Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means
Under the proposal (H.R. 5808), a public health insurance plan would be established and administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), and it would have to charge premiums that fully cover its costs for benefit payments and administrative expenses.
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates that the public plan's premiums would be 5 percent to 7 percent lower, on average, than the premiums of private plans offered in the exchanges.
In deciding whether to enroll in the public plan, potential subscribers would consider those premium differences along with various other factors, including the number of providers who chose to participate in that plan. CBO expects that some providers would decline to participate in the public plan because its payment rates would be lower, on average, than private plans' payment rates. Even so, many providers would be likely to participate, in part because they would expect a plan administered by HHS to attract a substantial number of enrollees.
Taking into account all of the relevant factors, CBO estimates that roughly one-third of the people obtaining coverage through the insurance exchanges would enroll in the public plan. CBO estimates that about 25 million people would purchase coverage individually through the exchanges in the 2017–2019 period under the proposal; in addition, about 13 million people would be expected to obtain employment-based coverage through the exchanges — so total enrollment in exchange plans would be about 38 million. Total enrollment in the public plan would thus be roughly 13 million.
Compared with projections of enrollment under current law for the 2017–2019 period, CBO estimates that about three-quarters of a million more people would obtain individually purchased coverage and about three-quarters of a million fewer would have employment-based coverage. The proposal would have minimal effects on the number of people with other sources of coverage and on the number of people who would be uninsured.
CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) estimate that the proposal would reduce federal budget deficits through 2019 by about $53 billion. That estimate includes a $37 billion reduction in exchange subsidies and a $27 billion increase in tax revenues that would result from changes in employment-based coverage, partly offset by an $11 billion increase in costs for providing tax credits to small employers.
Comment: So here is the stand-alone bill for the public insurance option that created so much controversy during the reform process. As we look closer at this option, we can see that the great tragedy of the public option debate was that this almost worthless proposal diverted our attention away from the debate that we should have been having - a debate over whether or not we should enact a single, universal public insurance program.
Let's look first at the very narrow impact of the features of the public option, and then we'll look at the very broad and crucial implications of returning to this debate instead of the one that we should be having.
First of all, what impact would this have on the numbers of insured? The additional three-quarters of a million individuals net who would obtain individually purchased coverage would be offset by approximately the same number who would no longer have employer-sponsored coverage. Enacting the public option will produce no net gain in the numbers of individuals insured.
CBO estimates that premiums for the public option will be 5 to 7 percent lower than the premiums for the private plans offered in the exchanges. This savings is from a combination of lower administrative costs for the public option, and the ability of the government to extract greater price and fee concessions from the providers of health care. Paying a slightly lower premium may not be wise if the providers start bailing out of the system.
Also, the supporters of this measure shouldn't pretend that the very modest reduction in administrative costs of these public plans somehow addresses the profound administrative waste throughout our system. The single payer model would be effective in reducing this waste by hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas H.R. 5808 merely takes a paring knife to plans that would cover only about 4 percent of us, while neglecting the profound administrative waste of the other insurers and the administrative burden that they place on the health care delivery system. The public option is merely another plan in the insurance exchange markets, and, as such, fails to provide the fundamental structural financing reform that we need.
Further, the 5 to 7 percent difference could easily be lost in the fog of comparing the government subsidies for the exchange plans with the employers' contributions to the premiums of employer-sponsored plans. A policy that has a very modest benefit for 13 million people is unimpressive when we are trying to fix a system so that it takes care of all 310 million of us.
CBO estimates that the measure would reduce the federal budget deficits through 2019 by about $53 billion, partly by decreasing subsidies in the exchanges and increasing income and payroll taxes for those losing employer-sponsored coverage. This reduction in government spending results in increased costs to individuals - a trend that already is having a negative impact on affordable access to health care. Nevertheless, 53 billion dollars is hardly a blip when you consider that we'll be spending about 30,000 billion dollars on health care through 2019. Besides, though CBO is required to estimate the impact on the federal budget, what we really care about is our total national health expenditures (NHE) and not the portion that passes through a government budget.
So the narrow impact is that the public option fails to meet the goals of reform since it does nothing to increase the net numbers of individuals with insurance, and it doesn't even provide a blip in our NHE.
The broader impact of H.R. 5808 is much more consequential. Considerable political capital will be consumed in efforts to enact it. The managers of the bill would understand that any consideration of a single payer national health program would have to be left off of the table since that model actually would accomplish the goals of reform. To go through another process that alienates so many colleagues in the health care justice camp risks creating an impasse to real reform that could last many years or perhaps even a decade or two.
The financing infrastructure of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act cannot work to achieve equitable health care financing for everyone. We can't afford to waste political capital on a legislative amendment that merely appeases those who lost the public option debate, but does nothing to build the solid financial infrastructure that we need.
Let's spend all of our political capital on real reform: a single payer national health program - an improved Medicare for everyone.